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14-Nov-2017 02:20

source: UNESCO/ERI Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 オマーン北部、標高約3000mのアフダル山麓にある城塞都市。BC3世紀より開け、7~15世紀には海のシルクロードの中継地として栄えた。遊牧民やペルシア人の攻撃、略奪から自衛するために砦や城塞が発達し、その最大規模の偉容を誇るのがバフラ城塞で、全長は12kmである。しかしながら日干しレンガ造りのため耐久力が無く、オマーン政府の財政難で急速に崩壊が進んでいる。1988年には危機にさらされている世界遺産リストにも登録された。 source: NFUAJ Bahla was het centrum van het Ibadisme (een stroming binnen de islam).De oase van Bahla dankt zijn welvaart aan de Banu Nebhan, de dominante stam in het gebied van de 12e eeuw tot het einde van de 15e eeuw na Christus.The pre-gunpowder style fort with rounded towers and castellated parapets, together with the perimeter sur of stone and mud brick technology demonstrates the status and influence of the ruling elite.The remaining mud brick family compounds of traditional vernacular houses (harats) including al-Aqr, al-Ghuzeili, al-Hawulya and the associated mosques, audience halls (sablas), bath houses, together with the dwellings of the fort guards (askari) demonstrate a distinctive settlement pattern related to the location of the falaj.The fort and settlement, a mud-walled oasis in the Omani desert, owed its prosperity to the Banu Nebhan tribe (Nabahina), who dominated the central Omani region and made Bahla their capital from the 12th to the end of the 15th century.From there they established relationships with other tribal groups of the interior.The oasis is watered by the falaj system of wells and underground channels bringing groundwater from distant springs, and by management of the seasonal flow of water.Bahla is an outstanding example of a fortified oasis settlement of the medieval Islamic period, exhibiting the water engineering skill of the early inhabitants for agricultural and domestic purposes.

Oman is using enhanced oil recovery techniques to boost production and has actively pursued a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP from 46% at present to 9% by 2020.Bahla was the centre of Ibadism (a branch of Islam), on which the ancient Omani Imamates were based and whose influence can be traced across Arabia, Africa and beyond.The extensive wall (sur) with sentry walk and watchtowers enclosing the labyrinth of mud brick dwellings and cultivatable land has several gateways.The ruins of the immense fort, with its walls and towers of unbaked brick and its stone foundations, is a remarkable example of this type of fortification and attests to the power of the Banu Nebhan.

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Page last updated on January 12, 2017 Economy - overview: Oman is heavily dependent on its dwindling oil resources, which generate 84% of government revenue.